The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies, or one study may be explained in several publications).
Subset of Studies Conducted in the United States and Canada
Brown EC, Low S, Smith BH, Haggerty KP. Outcomes from a school-randomized controlled trial of steps to respect: a bullying prevention program. School Psychology Review 2011;40 (3):423-33.
Cappella E, Hamre BK, Yeon Kim H, Henry DB, Frazier SL, et al. Teacher consultation and coaching within mental health practice: classroom and child effects in urban elementary schools. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2012;80(4):597-610.
Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. The effects of a multiyear universal social–emotional learning program: the role of student and school characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2010;78(2):156-68.
Connolly J, Josephson W, Schnoll J, Simkins-Strong E, Pepler D, et al. Evaluation of a youth-led program for preventing bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression in middle schools. Journal of Early Adolescence 2015;35(3):403-34.
Crean HF, Johnson DB. Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) and elementary school aged children's aggression: results from a cluster randomized trial. American Journal of Community Psychology 2013;52(1-2):56-72.
DeRosier ME, Marcus SR. Building friendships and combating bullying: effectiveness of S.S.GRIN at one-year follow-up. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 2005;34(1):140-50.
DeRosier ME. Building relationships and combating bullying: effectiveness of a school-based social skills group intervention. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 2004;33(1):196-201.
Espelage DL, Rose CA, Polanin JR. Social-emotional learning program to promote prosocial and academic skills among middle school students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education 2016;1-10.
Espelage DL, Rose CA, Polanin JR. Social-emotional learning program to reduce bullying, fighting, and victimization among middle school students with disabilities. Remedial and Special Education 2015; 36(5):299-311.
Espelage DL, Low S, Polanin JR, Brown EC. The impact of a middle school program to reduce aggression, victimization, and sexual violence. Journal of Adolescent Health 2013;53(2):180-6.
Frey KS, Snell JL, Van Schoiack Edstrom L, MacKenzie EP, Broderick CJ. Reducing playground bullying and supporting beliefs: an experimental trial of the Steps to Respect program. Developmental Psychology Journal 2005;41(3):479-90.
Green JG, Holt MK, Oblath R, Robinson E, Storey K, et al. Engaging professional sports to reduce bullying: an evaluation of the Boston vs. Bullies Program. Journal of School Violence 2020.
Jenson JM, Brisson D, Bender KA, Williford AP. Effects of the Youth Matters Prevention Program on patterns of bullying and victimization in elementary and middle school. Social Work Research 2013;37(4):361-72.
Meraviglia MG, Becker H, Rosenbluth B, Sanchez E, Robertson T. The Expect Respect Project. Creating a positive elementary school climate. Journal Interpersonal Violence 2003;18(11):1347-60.
Ostrov JM, Godleski SA, Kamper-DeMarco KE, Blakely-McClure SJ, Celenza L. Replication and extension of the Early Childhood Friendship Project: effects on physical and relational bullying. School Psychology Review 2015; 44(4):445-63.
Sanchez E, Robertson TR, Lewis CM, Rosenbluth B, Bohman T, et al. Preventing bullying and sexual harassment in elementary schools the Expect Respect Model. Journal of Emotional Abuse 2001;2 (2-3):157-80.
Santos RG, Chartier MJ, Whalen JC, Chateau D, Boyd L. Effectiveness of school-based violence prevention for children and youth: a research report. Healthcare Quarterly 2011;14 (2):80-91.
Swaim RC, Kelly K. Efficacy of a randomized trial of a community and school-based anti-violence media intervention among small-town middle school youth. Prevention Sciences 2008;9(3):202-14.
Yeager DS, Trzesniewski KH, Dweck CS. An implicit theories of personality intervention reduces adolescent aggression in response to victimization and exclusion. Child Development 2012; 84 (3):970-88.
Subset of included studies conducted outside of the United States and Canada
Athanasiades C, Kamariotis H, Psalti A, Baldry AC, Sorrentino A. Internet use and cyberbullying among adolescent students in Greece: The “TABBY” project. Hellenic Journal of Psychology 2015;12:14-39.
Baldry AC, Farrington DP. Evaluation of an intervention program for the reduction of bullying and victimization in schools. Aggressive Behavior 2004;30:1-15.
Barkoukis V, Lazuras L, Ourda D, Tsorbatzoudis H. Psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: evidence from a school-based intervention. Aggressive Behavior 2016;42:114-22.
Bonell C, Allen E, Opondo C, Warren E, Elbourne DR, et al. Examining intervention mechanisms of action using mediation analysis within a randomised trial of a whole-school health intervention. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2019;73(5):455-64.
Bonell C, Allen E, Warren E, McGowan J, Bevilacqua L, et al. Effects of the Learning Together Intervention on bullying and aggression in English secondary schools (INCLUSIVE): a cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2018;392(10163):2452-64.
Boulton MJ, Boulton L. Modifying self-blame, self-esteem, and disclosure through a cooperative cross-age teaching intervention for bullying among adolescents. Violence and Victims 2017;32(4):609-26.
Boulton MJ, Flemington I. The effects of a short video intervention on secondary school pupils' involvement in definitions of and attitudes towards bullying. School Psychology International 1996;17:331.
Bowes L, Aryani F, Ohan F, Haryanti RH, Winarna S, et al. The development and pilot testing of an adolescent bullying intervention in Indonesia - the ROOTS Indonesia Program. Global Health Action 2019;12(1):e1656905.
Calvete E, Orue I, Fernández-González L, Prieto-Fidalgo A. Effects of an incremental theory of personality Intervention on the reciprocity between bullying and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in adolescents. PLoS One 2019;14(11):e0224755.
Chen LM, Sung YH, Cheng W. How to enhance teachers’ bullying identification: a comparison among providing a training program, a written definition, and a definition with a checklist of bullying characteristics. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher 2017; 26(6):351-59.
Cross D, Shaw T, Hadwen K, Cardoso P, Slee P, et al. Longitudinal impact of the cyber friendly schools program on adolescents’ cyberbullying behavior. Aggressive Behavior 2016;42:166-80.
Cross D, Monks H, Hall M, Shaw T, Pintabona Y, et al.Three-year results of the Friendly Schools whole-of-school intervention on children’s bullying behaviour. British Educational Research Journal 2011; 37(1):105-29.
DeSmet A, Bastiaensens S, Van Cleemput K, Poels K, Vandebosch H, et al. The efficacy of the Friendly Attac serious digital game to promote prosocial bystander behavior in cyberbullying among Young adolescents: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Computers in Human Behavior 2018;78:336-47.
Farmer VL, Williams SM, Mann JI, Schofield G, McPhee JC, et al. Change of school playground environment on bullying: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 2017;139(5):e20163072.
Fekkes M, Pijpers FIM, Verloove-Vanhorick SP. Effects of antibullying school program on bullying and health complaints. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2006;160(6):638-44.
Fonagy P, Twemlow SW, Vernberg EM, Nelson JM, Dill EJ, et al. A cluster randomized controlled trial of child-focused psychiatric consultation and a school systems-focused intervention to reduce aggression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2009;50(5):607-16.
Giannotta F, Settanni M, Kliewer W, Ciairano S. Results of an Italian school-based expressive writing intervention trial focused on peer problems. Journal of Adolescence 2009; 32(6):1377-89.
Gradinger P, Yanagidaa T, Strohmeiera D, Spiel C. Prevention of cyberbullying and cyber victimization: evaluation of the ViSC Social Competence Program. Journal of School Violence 2015;14 (1): 87-110.
Gusmões J, Sañudo A, Valente JY, Sanchez ZM. Violence in Brazilian schools: analysis of the effect of the #Tamojunto Prevention Program for Bullying and Physical Violence. Journal of Adolescence 2018;63:107-117.
Holen S, Waaktaar T, Lervåg A, Ystgaard M. Implementing a universal stress management program for young school children: are there classroom climate or academic effects? Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 2013;57(4):420-44.
Hormazábal-Aguayo I, Fernández-Vergara O, González-Calderón N, Vicencio-Rojas F, Russell-Guzmán J, et al. Can a before-school physical activity program decrease bullying victimization in disadvantaged children? The Active-Start Study. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 2019;19(3):237-42.
Hunt C. The effect of an education program on attitudes and beliefs about bullying and bullying behaviour in junior secondary school students. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2007;12(1):21-6.
Ju Y, Wang S, Zhang W. Intervention research on school bullying in primary schools. Frontiers of Education in China 2009; 4(1):111-22.
Kaljee L, Zhang L, Langhaug L, Munjile K, Tembo S, et al. A randomized-control trial for the Teachers' Diploma Programme on psychosocial care, support and protection in Zambian government primary schools. Psychology, Health & Medicine 2017; 22(4):381-92.
Karasimopoulou S, Derri V, Zer voudaki E. Children's perceptions about their health-related quality of life: effects of a health education-social skills program. Health Education Research 2012;27(5):780-93.
Kärnä A, Voeten M, Little TD, Alanen E, Poskiparta E, et al. Effectiveness of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 1–3 and 7–9. Journal of Educational Psychology 2013;105(2):535–51.
Kärnä A, Voeten M, Little TD, Poskiparta E, Kaljonen A, et al. A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 4-6. Child Development 2011;82(1):311-30.
Kathard H, Walters F, Frieslaar, K, Mhlongo T, Rhoode, M, et al. Classroom intervention to change peers' attitudes towards children who stutter: a feasibility study. South African Journal of Communication Disorders 2014; 61(1).
Knowler C, Frederickson N. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour. Educational Psychology 2013;33(7):862-83.
Mallick R, Kathard H, Borhan A, Pillay M, Thabane L. A Cluster randomised trial of a classroom communication resource program to change peer attitudes towards children who stutter among grade 7 students. Trial 2018;19(1), 664.
Meyer N, Lesch E. An analysis of the limitations of a behavioural programme for bullying boys from a subeconomic environment. Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2000; 12(1):59-6.
Midthassel UV, Bru E, Idsoe T. Is the sustainability of reduction in bullying related to follow-up procedures? Journal Educational Psychology 2008;28 (1):83-95.
Moore B, Woodcock S, Dudley D. Developing wellbeing through a randomised controlled trial of a martial arts based intervention: an alternative to the anti-bullying approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2018;16(1):81-99.
Muñoz-Fernández N, Ortega-Rivera J, Nocentini A, Menesini E, Sánchez-Jiménez V. The efficacy of the "Dat-e Adolescence" prevention program in the reduction of dating violence and bullying. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2019; 16(3),408-29.
Naidoo S, Satorius BK, De Vries H, Taylor M. Verbal bullying changes among students following an educational intervention using the integrated model for behavior change. Journal of School Health 2016; 86(11):813-22.
Nieh HP, Wu WC. Effects of a collaborative board game on bullying intervention: a group-randomized controlled trial. Journal of School Health 2018;88(10):725-33.
Nocentini A, Menesini E, Pluess M. The personality trait of environmental sensitivity predicts children’s positive response to school-based antibullying intervention. Clinical Psychological Science 2018;1-12.
Nocentini A, Menesini E. KiVa Anti-bullying program in Italy: evidence of effectiveness in a randomized control trial. Prevention Science 2016;17(8):1012-23.
Pfetsch J, Schultze-Krumbholz A, Füllgraf, F. Does the information about classroom norms change the individual injunctive norms about cyberbullying? A minimal intervention study. International Journal of Developmental Science 2018;1(2):1-11.
Schechtman Z, Ifargan M. School-based integrated and segregated interventions to reduce aggression. Aggressive Behavior 2009;35(4):342-56.
Shams H, Garmaroudi G, Nedjat S, Yekaninejad MS. Effect of education based on socio-ecological theory on bullying in students: an educational study. Electronic Physician Journal 2018; 10(7):7046-53.
Sorrentino A, Baldry AC, Farrington DP. The efficacy of the Tabby Improved Prevention and Intervention Program in reducing cyberbullying and cybervictimization among students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2018;15(11):2536.
Stelko-Pereira AC, Williams LC. Evaluation of a Brazilian school violence prevention program (Violência Nota Zero). Pensamiento Psicológico 2016;14(1):63-76.
Stevens V, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Van Oost P. Bullying in Flemish schools: an evaluation of anti-bullying intervention in primary and secondary schools. British Journal of Educational Psychology 2000; 70(2): 195-210.
Tanrıkulu T, Kınay H, Arıcak OT. Sensibility development program against cyberbullying. New Media and Society 2015;17(5):708-19.
Trip S, Bora C, Sipos-Gug S, Tocai I, Gradinger P, et al. Bullying prevention in schools by targeting cognitions, emotions, and behavior: evaluating the effectiveness of the REBE-ViSC Program. Journal of Counseling Psychology 2015; 62(4):732-40.
Tsiantis ACJ, Beratis IN, Syngelaki EM, Stefanakou AA, Asimopoulos C, et al. The effects of a clinical prevention program on bullying, victimization, and attitudes toward school of elementary school students. Behavioral Disorders 2013;38(4):243-57.
van den Berg YHM, Segers E, Cillessen AHN. Changing peer perceptions and victimization through classroom arrangements: a field experiment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 2012;40(3):403-12.
Wójcik M, Hełka AM. Meeting the needs of young adolescents: ABBL Anti-Bullying Program during middle school transition. Psychological Reports 2018;122(3):1043-67.
Yan H, Chen J, Huang J. School bullying among left-behind children: the efficacy of art therapy on reducing bullying victimization. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2019;10(40):1-7.
David-Ferdon C, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Dahlberg LL, Marshall KJ, Rainford N, et al. A Comprehensive Technical Package for the Prevention of Youth Violence and Associated Risk Behaviors. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016.
Diliberti M, Jackson M, Correa S, Padgett Z. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: Findings From the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2017–18 (NCES 2019-061). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved [November 3, 2021] from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2019/2019061.pdf
Doumas DM, Midgett A. Witnessing cyberbullying and internalizing symptoms among middle school students. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 2020;10(4):957-66.
Fraguas D, Diaz-Caneja CM, Ayora M, Duran-Cutilla M, Abregu-Crespo R, et al. Assessment of school anti-bullying interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. JAMA Pediatrics 2021;175(1):44-55.
Gladden RM, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Hamburger ME, Lumpkin CD. Bullying Surveillance Among Youths: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements, Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA; National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and U.S. Department of Education; 2014.
Hahn R, Fuqua-Whitley D, Wethington H, Lowy J, Crosby A, et al. Effectiveness of universal school-based programs to prevent violent and aggressive behavior: a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007;33(2S):S114–29.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy, and Practice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2016.
Singham T, Viding E, Schoeler T, et al. Concurrent and longitudinal contribution of exposure to bullying in childhood to mental health: the role of vulnerability and resilience. JAMA Psychiatry 2017;74(11):1112-9.
Wolke D, Lereya ST Long-term effects of bullying. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2015;100:879-85.