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Vaccination Programs: Provider Education When Used Alone


What the CPSTF Found

About The Systematic Review

The CPSTF finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review completed in 2010 (5 studies with 6 study arms, search period 1980-2009) combined with more recent evidence (1 study, search period 2009-2012).

This review was conducted on behalf of the CPSTF by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination. The finding updates and replaces the 2010 finding for Provider Education When Used Alone pdf icon [PDF - 463 KB].

Summary of Results

Detailed results from the systematic review are available in the CPSTF Finding and Rationale Statement pdf icon [PDF - 483 KB].

The systematic review included six studies with seven study arms.

  • Overall vaccination rates increased by a median of 4 percentage points (6 studies with 7 study arms).
    • None of the individual estimates were statistically significant and results were inconsistent across studies.

Summary of Economic Evidence

An economic review of this intervention was not conducted because the CPSTF did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.


Applicability of this intervention across different settings and populations was not assessed because the CPSTF did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.

Evidence Gaps

The CPSTF identified several areas that have limited information. Additional research and evaluation could help answer the following questions and fill remaining gaps in the evidence base. (What are evidence gaps?)

  • How effective is provider education when used to promote new vaccines or expanded recommendations for specific vaccinations?
  • Are interventions effective when delivered through distance-based training or other, newer approaches?

Study Characteristics

  • Included studies were conducted in hospitals and primary care settings.
  • Studies focused on uptake of different vaccinations including pneumococcal, influenza and the childhood series.