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Vaccination Programs: Community-Wide Education When Used Alone


What the CPSTF Found

About The Systematic Review

This CPSTF finding is based on evidence from a Community Guide systematic review completed in 2010 pdf icon [PDF - 496 KB] (6 studies with 8 study arms, search period 1980-2009) combined with more recent evidence (1 study, search period 2009-February 2012).

This review was conducted on behalf of the CPSTF by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to increasing appropriate vaccination.

Summary of Results

Detailed results from the systematic review are available in the CPSTF Finding and Rationale Statement pdf icon [PDF - 503 KB].

The systematic review included seven studies with nine study arms.

  • Overall, vaccination rates increased by a median of 6 percentage points (4 studies with 6 study arms).

Summary of Economic Evidence

An economic review of this intervention was not conducted because the CPSTF did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.


Applicability of this intervention across different settings and populations was not assessed because the CPSTF did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.

Evidence Gaps

The CPSTF identified several areas that have limited information. Additional research and evaluation could help answer the following questions and fill remaining gaps in the evidence base. (What are evidence gaps?)

  • How effective are community-wide education interventions when implemented alone?
  • How effective are interventions when used in communities that have disparities in vaccination rates?
  • What is the impact of community-wide education on the uptake of new vaccines, or new vaccine recommendations?
  • How well do interventions work when there is an outbreak of vaccine-preventable disease (e.g., pertussis or measles) or a public health emergency (e.g., pandemic influenza)?
  • How does effectiveness differ between direct-to-consumer mass and small media advertising by vaccine manufacturers and campaigns conducted by healthcare systems and public health programs?

Study Characteristics

  • Studies were from the United States, Australia, and Finland.
  • Included studies focused on older adults and children.
  • Studies evaluated intervention effects on the uptake of influenza, pneumococcal, hepatitis B and MMR vaccines.