The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Affenito SG, Thompson D, Dorazio A, Albertson AM, Loew A, Holschuh NM. Ready-to-eat cereal consumption and the school breakfast program: relationship to nutrient intake and weight. J Sch Health 2013;83(1):28-35.
Amin SA, Yon BA, Taylor JC, Johnson RK. Impact of the National School Lunch Program on fruit and vegetable selection in Northeastern elementary schoolchildren, 2012-2013. Public Health Rep 2015;130(5):453-7.
Bere E, Veierod MB, Bjelland M, Klepp KI. Outcome and process evaluation of a Norwegian school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention: Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM). Health Educ Res 2006a;21(2):258-67.
Bere E, Veierod MB, Bjelland M, Klepp KI. Free school fruit—sustained effect 1 year later. Health Educ Res 2006b;21(2):268-75.
Bere E, Veierod MB, Klepp KI. The Norwegian School Fruit Programme: evaluating paid vs. no-cost subscriptions. Preventive Medicine 2005;41(2):463-70.
Campos Pastor MM, Serrano Pardo MD, Fernandez Soto ML, Luna Del Castillo JD, Escobar-Jimenez F. Impact of a 'school-based' nutrition intervention on anthropometric parameters and the metabolic syndrome in Spanish adolescents. Ann Nutr Metab 2012;61(4):281-8.
Chang H-H. Food preparation for the school lunch program and body weight of elementary school children in Taiwan. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 2014;17(1):21-36.
Cohen JF, Smit LA, Parker E, Austin SB, Frazier AL, Economos CD, et al. Long-term impact of a chef on school lunch consumption: findings from a 2-year pilot study in Boston middle schools. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012;112(6):927-33.
Cullen KW, Chen TA, Dave JM. Changes in foods selected and consumed after implementation of the new National School Lunch Program meal patterns in southeast Texas. Prev Med Rep 2015;2:440-443.
Damsgaard CT, Dalskov S-M, Laursen RP, Ritz C, Hjorth MF, Lauritzen L, et al. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8–11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference. British Journal of Nutrition 2014;112(11):1826-1836 11p.
Davis EM, Cullen KW, Watson KB, Konarik M, Radcliffe J. A Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce. J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109(7):1227-31.
Gates M, Hanning RM, Gates A, McCarthy DD, Tsuji LJS. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada. Journal of School Health 2013;83(2):69-76.
Hanbazaza MA, Triador L, Ball GDC, Farmer A, Maximova K, First Nation A, et al. The Impact of School Gardening on Cree Children's Knowledge and Attitudes toward Vegetables and Fruit. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice & Research 2015;76(3):133-139 7p. (linked with Triador)
Jamelske EM, Bica LA. Impact of the USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program on Children's Consumption. Journal of Child Nutrition & Management 2012;36(1).
Kastorini CM, Lykou A, Yannakoulia M, Petralias A, Riza E, Linos A. The influence of a school-based intervention programme regarding adherence to a healthy diet in children and adolescents from disadvantaged areas in Greece: the DIATROFI study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2016.
Lin YC, Fly AD. USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program Is More Effective in Town and Rural Schools Than Those in More Populated Communities. J Sch Health 2016;86(11):769-777.
Moore L, Tapper K. The impact of school fruit tuck shops and school food policies on children's fruit consumption: a cluster randomised trial of schools in deprived areas. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008;62(10):926-31.
Olsho LE, Klerman JA, Ritchie L, Wakimoto P, Webb KL, Bartlett S. Increasing Child Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Findings from the US Department of Agriculture Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program. J Acad Nutr Diet 2015;115(8):1283-90.
Perry CL, Bishop DB, Taylor GL, Davis M, Story M, Gray C, et al. A randomized school trial of environmental strategies to encourage fruit and vegetable consumption among children. Health Educ Behav 2004;31(1):65-76.
Qian Y. The effect of school and neighborhood environmental factors on childhood obesity. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences 2015;75(8-A(E)):No-Specified.
Radcliffe B, Ogden C, Welsh J, Carroll S, Coyne T, Craig P. The Queensland School Breakfast Project: a health promoting schools approach. Nutrition & Dietetics 2005;62(1):33-40.
Taber DR, Chriqui JF, Chaloupka FJ. State laws governing school meals and disparities in fruit/vegetable intake. Am J Prev Med 2013a;44(4):365-72.
Taber DR, Chriqui JF, Powell L, Chaloupka FJ. Association between state laws governing school meal nutrition content and student weight status: implications for new USDA school meal standards. JAMA Pediatr 2013b;167(6):513-9.
Tak NI, Te Velde SJ, Brug J. Ethnic differences in 1-year follow-up effect of the Dutch Schoolgruiten Project - promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among primary-school children. Public Health Nutr 2007;10(12):1497-507.
Te Velde SJ, Brug J, Wind M, Hildonen C, Bjelland M, Perez-Rodrigo C, et al. Effects of a comprehensive fruit- and vegetable-promoting school-based intervention in three European countries: the Pro Children Study. Br J Nutr 2008;99(4):893-903.
Triador L, Farmer A, Maximova K, Willows N, Kootenay J. A School Gardening and Healthy Snack Program Increased Aboriginal First Nations Children's Preferences Toward Vegetables and Fruit. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior 2015;47(2):176-180 5p.
Bere E, Veierød MB, Klepp K-I. The Norwegian School Fruit Programme: evaluating paid vs. no-cost subscriptions. Preventive Medicine 2005;41(2):463-70.
Bere E, Veierød M, Bjelland M, Klepp K. Free school fruit—sustained effect 1 year later. Health Education Research 2006;21(2):268-75.
Bere E, Veierød MB, Skare Ø, Klepp K-I. Free school fruit–sustained effect three years later. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007;4(1):1.
Bere E, Klepp K-I, Øverby NC. Free school fruit: can an extra piece of fruit every school day contribute to the prevention of future weight gain? A cluster randomized trial. Food & Nutrition Research 2014;58.
Chang H-H. Food preparation for the school lunch program and body weight of elementary school children in Taiwan. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 2014;17(1):21-35.
Gortmaker SL, Wang YC, Long MW, Giles CM, Ward ZJ, et al. Three interventions that reduce childhood obesity are projected to save more than they cost to implement. Health Affairs 2015;34(11):1932-9.
Montgomery D, Scaife B, Evans A. The effect of a food service intervention (catch Eat Smart) on school meal cost. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1996;96(9):A09.
Qian Y. Effect of School and Neighborhood Environmental Factors on Childhood Obesity [dissertation]. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas; 2014.
Qian Y, Nayga RM, Thomsen MR, Rouse HL. The effect of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program on childhood obesity. Appl Econ Perspect Pol 2016;38:260-75.
Te Velde SJ, Veerman JL, Tak NI, Bosmans JE, Klepp K-I, Brug J. Modeling the long term health outcomes and cost-effectiveness of two interventions promoting fruit and vegetable intake among school children. Economics & Human Biology 2011;9(1):14-22.
Wagner B, Senauer B, Runge CF. An empirical analysis of and policy recommendations to improve the nutritional quality of school meals. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 2007;29(4):672-88.
The search strategy described below was used for the following reviews of interventions to support healthier foods and beverages in schools:
The CPSTF findings are based on evidence from a systematic review published in 2013 (Wang et al, 2013) combined with more recent evidence. Wang et al. searched five bibliographic databases: MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, PsychInfo®, CINAHL®, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies from their inception through April 22, 2013. The Community Guide systematic review team conducted an updated search for evidence through January 4, 2017. In the updated search for evidence, PubMed® was used instead of MEDLINE®, and a search was conducted using Clinicaltrials.com.
Search terms and search strategies were adjusted to each database, based on controlled and uncontrolled vocabularies and search software. Once the literature search was completed, Community Guide staff reviewed the citations using inclusion and exclusion criteria to narrow down the publications to be included.
Search Strategy - Effectiveness Review
Database: Embase (OVID)
Date Searched: 1/04/2017
- (school or schools or afterschool or kindergarten or educational-setting*).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- school/ or high school/ or kindergarten/ or middle school/ or primary school/
- exp obesity/
- exp body composition/
- waist hip ratio/ or waist to height ratio/
- (bmi or healthy weight or body weight or adiposity or body mass index or skinfold thickness or body fat or waist circumference or waist hip ratio or waist to height ratio or body composition or overweight or obese or obesity or over weight).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- body weight/
- (normal weight or normal weights or hip circumference).ti,ot,sh,ab,tw.
- body fat/
- body mass index/
- skinfold thickness/
- waist circumference/
- 1 or 2
- 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7 or 8 or 9 or 10 or 11 or 12
- 13 and 14
- 2014*.em. or 2015*.em. or 2016*.em. [Individual update weeks were no longer available to be searched for 2014.]
- 15 and 16
- limit 17 to english language
Search Strategy - Economic Review
The published literature was searched for economic information about the two interventions that were found to be effective.
The search for economic evidence included studies identified in the search for effectiveness evidence described earlier (search period through March 8, 2016) and a search within specialized databases at CRD-York and in EconLit (search period through January 5, 2016). Search terms and strategies were adjusted for each database, based on controlled and uncontrolled vocabularies and software. In addition, reference lists in included studies were screened and subject matter experts were consulted for additional studies that may have been missed.
Database: CRD-York (NHS-EED)
Date Searched: 01/05/2016
- (obesity or overweight or "over weight" or adiposity or obese or "body fat" OR "waist hip" or "waist to hip" or "skinfold thickness" or "skinfold measurement" or "skin fold thickness" or "skin fold measurement" or "hip circumference" or "waist circumference")
- ("normal weight" or "bmi" or "body mass index" OR "waist to height" or "body composition" or "body fat")
- #1 OR #2
- (school or schools or "educational setting" or kindergarten or schoolchild* or preschool*)
- #3 AND #4
Limit to NHS EED studies
Date Searched: 01/05/2016
Modes - Boolean/Phrase
S10 (S1 OR S2 OR S3 OR S4 OR S5 OR S6 OR S7 OR S8) AND (S9)
S9 TX "educational setting" OR TX school OR TX schools OR TX kindergarten* OR TX "educational settings" OR TX "academic setting" OR TX "academic settings"
S8 TX "adiposity"
S7 TX "skinfold thickness"
S6 TX overweight or TX "over weight"
S5 TX "healthy weight" or TX "waist hip" OR TX "waist to height" OR TX "waist circumference”
S4 TX "body mass" OR TX bmi OR TX "body composition" or TX "normal weight"
S3 TX obesity or TX obese
S2 TX "skinfold thickness" OR TX "hip measurement" OR TX "waist measurement"
S1 TX “body fat” OR TX "hip circumference" OR TX "waist to hip"