Analytic Framework [PDF - 84 KB]
When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
Summary Evidence Table—Studies From the Updated Search (March 2002-August 2016) [PDF - 411 KB]
Refer to Cooper, et al. (2003) for evidence from the published systematic review.
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Brown J, Sarte S, Francis K, Rest G, Reynolds D; Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission. Report To the Governor and The General Assembly of Virginia: Review of Year-Round Schools; October 2012; Richmond, Virginia. Available from URL:http://jlarc.virginia.gov/pdfs/reports/Rpt430.pdf
Graves, J. The academic impact of multi-track year-round school calendars: a response to school overcrowding. J Urban Econ 2010;67:378–91.
Mitchell RE and Mitchell DE. Student segregation and achievement tracking in year-round schools. Teachers College Record 2005;107(4):529–62.
McMullen SC. The impact of year-round schooling on academic achievement: evidence from mandatory school calendar conversions. American Econ J 2012;4(4):230–52.
Ramos BK. Breaking the tradition of summer vacation to raise academic achievement. ERS Spectrum 2011;29(4):1-20.
Wu AD. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California’s API Scores? J Educ Res & Policy Studies 2010;10(1):79–97.
Additional References Related to the Included Studies
Graves J. Effects of year-round schooling on disadvantaged students and the distribution of standardized test performance. Econ Educ Rev 2011;30:1281–305.
McMullen SC, Rouse KE, Haan J. The distributional effects of the multi-track tear-round calendar: a quantile regression approach. Applied Econ Letters 2015;22(15):1188–92.
The Community Preventive Services Task Force finding is based on evidence from a systematic review published in 2003 (Cooper et al., search period through March 2002, 47 studies) and a Community Guide update (5 studies; search period March 2002-August 2016). To update the search, the review team used the search strategy listed below.
The following databases were searched for English-language papers that evaluated the impact of modified school time programs:
The literature search covered interventions modifying school time by either expanding school time or rearranging school calendar to create year-round schooling without expanding school time. For the review on year-round schooling, Community Guide staff limited the search to databases used by Cooper et al (except for Dissertation Abstracts, which was excluded because we did not include dissertations in the update).
Following are the search strategies used for this review.
Database: ERIC (PROQUEST)
Date Searched: 8/4/2016
Limits applied – after March 2002, English only, exclude dissertations/theses
S15 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4 OR 5 OR 6 OR 7 OR 8 OR 9 OR 10 OR 11 OR 12 OR 13 OR 14
S14 “lengthening the school year”
S13 “lengthen the school year”
S12 “lengthened school year”
S11 “longer school year”
S10 “extended school year”
S9 “extended school calendar”
S8 "year round education" OR "year-round education"
S7 “modified school calendar”
S6 "alternative calendar" OR "alternative calendars" OR "alternative school calendar" OR "alternative school calendars”
S5 “year round school”
S4 "twelve month calendar"
S3 "extended school year"
S2 SUBJECT.exact("Year Round Schools")
S1 "12 month school" OR "twelve month school"
Database: PsycINFO (OVID)
Date Searched: 8/4/2016
- (alternative calendar or modified school calendar or year-round school).mp.
- (year-round education or 12 month school or twelve month school or extended school calendar*).mp.
- (longer school year or extended school year or lengthened school year or lengthen the school year).mp.
- (lengthening the school year or alternative school calendar).mp.
- (lengthening school year or lengthen* the school year or alternative school calendar*).mp.
- (200204* or 200205* or 200206* or 200207* or 200208* or 200209* or 20021*).up.
- (2003* or 2004* or 2005* or 2006* or 2007* or 2008* or 2009* or 2010* or 2011* or 2012* or 2013* or 2014* or 2015* or 2016*).up.
- 6 or 7
- 8 and 9
Cooper H, Valentine JC, Charlton K. The effects of modified school calendars on student achievement and on school and community attitudes. Review of Educational Research 2003 73(1):1-52
Cooper H, Nye B, Charlton K. The effects of summer vacation on achievement test scores: a narrative and meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research 1996;66(3):227-68.
Graves J. The academic impact of multi-track year-round school calendars: a response to school overcrowding. J Urban Econ 2010;67:378-91.
Wu AD, Stone JE. Does year round schooling affect the outcome and growth of California’s API scores? J Educ Res & Policy Studies 2010;10(1):79-97.