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Health Equity: Mixed-Income Housing Developments


What the CPSTF Found

About The Systematic Review

A search for evidence did not find any eligible reviews (search period 1965-2000).

The review was conducted on behalf of the CPSTF by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice, and policy related to promoting health equity.

Summary of Results

No studies qualified for this systematic review.

Summary of Economic Evidence

An economic review of this intervention was not conducted because the CPSTF did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.


Applicability of this intervention across different settings and populations was not assessed because the CPSTF did not have enough information to determine if the intervention works.

Evidence Gaps

The CPSTF identified several areas that have limited information. Additional research and evaluation could help answer the following questions and fill remaining gaps in the evidence base. (What are evidence gaps?)

  • Do mixed-income housing developments begin revitalizing neighborhoods, making them more attractive to higher-income households, or are changes to a neighborhood’s demographic makeup limited to the housing development itself?
    • If mixed-income housing developments begin a process of revitalization that attracts higher-income households to a neighborhood, to what extent does this revitalization and related increases in housing costs ultimately push poor families out of the area?
  • How does variability among housing developments affect important outcomes, such as differences in the income groups represented, the degree of representation by each income group, and whether or not the units occupied by the various income groups are intermixed?
  • How do the type and quality of social services provided at housing developments influence the degree of social integration among tenants of various income groups (considered an important intermediate outcome of income mixing)?
  • What are other benefits of developments where job training, child care, or other pertinent services are provided (e.g., increased employability of disadvantaged household heads)?
  • To what degree does bringing higher-income households into neighborhoods of concentrated poverty affect these neighborhoods in terms of crime, the quality and availability of public services, residents’ access to market goods and services, and neighborhood physical conditions?

Study Characteristics

No studies qualified for this systematic review.