Analytic Framework [PDF - 70 KB]
When starting an effectiveness review, the systematic review team develops an analytic framework. The analytic framework illustrates how the intervention approach is thought to affect public health. It guides the search for evidence and may be used to summarize the evidence collected. The analytic framework often includes intermediate outcomes, potential effect modifiers, potential harms, and potential additional benefits.
No content is available for this section.
A summary evidence table for this Community Guide review is not available because the CPSTF finding is based on the following published systematic review:
Cooper H, Batts Allen A, Patall EA, Dent AL. Effects of full-day kindergarten on academic achievement and social development. Review of Educational Research 2010;80:34
Summary Evidence Table - Economic Review [PDF - 94 KB]
The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommendation for full-day kindergarten programs to improve the health prospects of low-income and minority children is based primarily on evidence from a systematic review of all available studies through October 2009 (Cooper et al. 2010, 55 studies). A search for more recent evidence (search period through March 2011) did not identify additional studies about full-day kindergarten programs.
The CPSTF also considered the studies and reviews listed below on the long term effects of early childhood education to draw inferences about the possible long term effects of full-day kindergarten.
The number of studies and publications do not always correspond (e.g., a publication may include several studies or one study may be explained in several publications).
Studies on Long Term Effects of Early Childhood Education
Barnett WS. Effectiveness of early educational intervention. Science 2011;333(6045): 975−8.
Camilli G, Vargas S, Ryan S, Barnett WS. Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teach Coll Rec 2010;112(3):579−620.
Campbell FA, Ramey CT, Pungello E, Sparling J, Miller-Johnson S. Early childhood education: young adult outcomes from the Abecedarian Project. Appl Dev Sci 2002;6(1):42−57. Currie J, Thomas D. School quality and the longer-term effects of Head Start. J Human Res 2000;35(4):755−74.
Currie J. Early childhood education programs. J Econ Perspect 2001;15(2):213−38.
Lee VE, Loeb S. Where do Head Start attendees end up? One reason why preschool effects fade out. Educ Eval Policy Anal 1995;17(1):62−82.
Loveless T, Farkas S, Dufett A. High achieving students in the era of NCLB. Washington (DC): Thomas B. Fordham Foundation & Institute; 2008.
Magnuson KA, Ruhm C, Waldfogel J. The persistence of preschool effects: Do subsequent classroom experiences matter? Early Child Res Q 2007;22:18−38.
Nores M, Barnett SB. Benefits of early childhood interventions across the world: (under) investing in the very young. Econ Educ Rev 2011;29(2):271−82.
Reynolds AJ. Effects of a preschool plus follow-on intervention for children at risk. Dev Psychol 1994;30(6):787−804.
Votruba-Drzal E, Li-Grinning C, Maldonado-Carreño C. A developmental perspective on full- versus part-day kindergarten and children's academic trajectories through fifth grade. Child Dev 2008;79(4):957−78.
Aos S, Miller M, Mayfield J. Benefits and costs of K-12 educational policies: evidence-based effects of class size reductions and full-day kindergarten. Olympia (WA): Washington State Institute for Public Policy; 2007.
Brewster C, Railsback J. Full-day kindergarten: exploring an option for extended learning. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory; 2002. Available at URL: educationnorthwest.org/webfm_send/467.
Cannon JS, Jacknowitz A, Painter G. Is full better than half? Examining the longitudinal effects of full-day kindergarten attendance. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 2006;25:299-321.
DeCicca P. Does full-day kindergarten matter? Evidence from the first two years of schooling. Economics of Education Review 2007;26(1):67-82.
Lee VE, Burkham, DT, Ready D, Honigman J, Meisels SJ. Full-day vs. half-day kindergarten: in which program do children learn more? U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement (Award Reference Number R305T990362-000); 2005. Available at URL: School.elps.k12.mi.us/kindergarten-study/full-Half_U_of_M_study_V_Lee_et_al.pdf.
Stone RT. The Pennsylvania State University. Full-day kindergarten in Manheim Central School District: exploring early literacy growth and proficiency. Doctoral Thesis in Educational Administration; 2006.
Weiss ADG, Offenberg RM. Enhancing urban children's early success in school: the power of full-day kindergarten. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. New Orleans (LA); 2002 Apr.
The CPSTF finding is based on evidence from a meta-analysis published in 2010 (Cooper et al., 55 studies, search period through 2009). Additionally, a research librarian searched for published studies (through March 2011) in the following databases: CINAHL; Dissertation Abstracts; EconLit; Embase; ERIC; Medline; NTIS (National Technical Information Service); PsycINFO; Social Services Abstracts; Sociological Abstracts; and Web of Science. No studies were identified that met review inclusion criteria.
disadvantaged or minority or minorities; poor or poverty or socioeconomic; blacks or (african american*) or hispanic*; or "at risk" or "high risk"; or fail or failure* or failed or failing; or remedial or truancy or truant; or iq or ability or abilities; or success or intervention* or readiness; or ready or achieve or achiever* or achievement*
and "full day*" or "full-day*"; or "half day*" or "half-day*"
No content is available for this section.
Cooper H, Batts Allen A, Patall EA, Dent AL. Effects of full-day kindergarten on academic achievement and social development. Review of Educational Research 2010;80:34.
Walston J, West J. Full-day and half-day kindergarten in the United States: findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998−99 (NCES 2004-078). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2004.