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The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services

Together, the Community Guide and the Clinical Guide provide evidence-based recommendations across the prevention spectrum.


There is no safe level of smoking. Occasional smoking is still harnful.  CDC Vital Signs.

Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking & Health—50th Anniversary: 1964-2014

Reducing Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure

a blue sign that reads This is a smoke free building

Tobacco use is responsible for more than 430,000 deaths each year and is the largest cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States (CDC) External Web Site Icon.

In Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs External Web Site Icon, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends statewide programs that combine and coordinate community-based interventions that focus on the following areas.

  1. Preventing initiation of tobacco use among youth and young adults
  2. Promoting quitting among adults and youth
  3. Eliminating exposure to secondhand smoke, and
  4. Identifying and eliminating tobacco-related disparities among population groups

Task Force Recommendations and Findings

This table lists interventions reviewed by the Community Guide, with a summary of the Task Force finding (definitions of findings). Click on an underlined intervention title for a summary of the review, and where available, Research-tested Intervention Programs (RTIPs).

Interventions Outcomes Addressed Task Force Finding
Community Education to Reduce Secondhand Smoke Exposure in the Home Secondhand Smoke
Insufficient Evidence
February 2000
Incentives and Competitions to Increase Smoking Cessation Among Workers
When Used Alone Cessation Insufficient Evidence
June 2005
When Combined with Additional Interventions Cessation Recommended
June 2005
Internet-Based Cessation Interventions Cessation Insufficient Evidence
December 2011
Interventions to Increase the Unit Price for Tobacco Products Cessation
Health Disparities
November 2012
Mass Media - Cessation Contests Cessation Insufficient Evidence
May 2000
Mass-Reach Health Communication Interventions Cessation
April 2013
Mobile Phone-Based Cessation Interventions Cessation Recommended
December 2011
Quitline Interventions Cessation Recommended
August 2012
Reducing Out-of-Pocket Costs for Evidence-Based Cessation Treatments Cessation Recommended
April 2012
Smoke-Free Policies Secondhand Smoke
November 2012
Provider-Oriented Interventions
The Task Force will not update its reviews on provider-oriented interventions and instead defers to systematic reviews being regularly updated and released as Clinical Practice Guidelines: Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence.
Restricting Minors' Access to Tobacco Products
Community Mobilization with Additional Interventions Initiation Recommended
June 2001
Community Education About Youth Access to Tobacco Products When Used Alone Initiation Insufficient Evidence
June 2001
Active Enforcement of Sales Laws Directed at Retailers When Used Alone Initiation Insufficient Evidence
June 2001
Retailer Education with Reinforcement and Information on Health Consequences When Used Alone Initiation Insufficient Evidence
June 2001
Retailer Education without Reinforcement When Used Alone Initiation Insufficient Evidence
June 2001
Laws Directed at Minors' Purchase, Possession, or Use of Tobacco Products When Used Alone Initiation Insufficient Evidence
June 2001
Sales Laws Directed at Retailers When Used Alone Initiation Insufficient Evidence
June 2001

Related Task Force Recommendations and Findings

The following interventions are related to Reducing Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure and can be found on the associated topic pages.

Assessment of Health Risks with Feedback (AHRF) to Change Employees' Health
AHRF Used Alone Insufficient Evidence
June 2006
AHRF Plus Health Education with or without Other Interventions Recommended
February 2007

Presentations and Promotional Materials

Community Guide In Action: Stories from the Field

Blueprint for Success in Reducing Tobacco Use Adobe PDF File [PDF - 489 kB]

Community-Wide Effort to Make Florida Tobacco Free Adobe PDF File [PDF - 494 kB]

An Evidence-Based Approach to Montana's Health Landscape Adobe PDF File [PDF - 590 kB]

Investing in Worksite Wellness for Employees Adobe PDF File [PDF - 455 kB]

Planning a Strategy: Changing the Way a County Health Department Addresses Health Conditions Adobe PDF File [PDF - 591 kB]

Putting the Community Guide to Work at Workplaces: Partnering to Reach Employers Adobe PDF File [PDF - 415 kB]

Slides and Presentations

Public Health Grand Rounds — Preventing 1 Million Heart Attacks and Strokes by 2017: the Million Hearts Initiative External Web Site Icon
Hosted by CDC

Using Evidence for Public Health Decision Making: Assessment of Health Risks with Feedback to Change Employees' Health Adobe PDF File [PDF - 307 kB]
Developed by The Community Guide

What Works – Fact Sheets

What Works: Tobacco Use – bi-fold brochure Adobe PDF File [PDF - 720 kB]

What Works: Tobacco Use - Insert Adobe PDF File [PDF - 296 kB]

Inactive and Archived Reviews

Access summaries, supporting materials, and publications from previous reviews.


The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.

Sample Citation

The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Reducing tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.