Increasing Tobacco Use Cessation: Mass Media Campaigns When Combined with Other Interventions
Campaigns, as evaluated for this review, are mass media interventions that use brief, recurring messages to inform and motivate tobacco users to quit. Message content is developed through formative research, and the campaigns use paid airtime and print space (advertisements) and/or donated time and space (public service announcements). Campaigns can be combined with other interventions, such as an increase in excise tax, or additional community education efforts.
Summary of Task Force Recommendations & Findings
- Reducing population consumption of tobacco products
- Increasing cessation among tobacco product users
This recommendation is based primarily on the effectiveness of long duration, high-intensity campaigns implemented and evaluated in three states (California, Massachusetts, and Oregon) in which use of mass media was coordinated with an excise tax increase and funding for other community- and school-based education programs.
Results from the Systematic Reviews
Fifteen studies qualified for the review of this intervention.
- Cessation rates in the intervention group over a median follow-up of 14 months (range: 6 months to 5 years): median of 7.0% (range: 3.9% to 50%; 5 studies)
- Difference in cessation rates between intervention group participants and comparison group participants: median of 2.2 percentage points (range: -2.0 to 25.0 percentage points; 5 studies)
- Per capita consumption of cigarettes in intervention states decreased by a median of 12.8% compared to the rest of the United States (15 fewer packs per capita per year; range -9.0 to -20.4 packs per year) (3 studies)
- Difference in tobacco use prevalence between intervention population and a comparison population: median reduction of 3.4 percentage points (+0.2 to -7.0 percentage points; 5 studies)
- Difference in tobacco use prevalence before and after the intervention (in studies without a concurrent control population): median of reduction of 3.6 percentage points (2 studies)
- All of the qualifying studies evaluated the effectiveness of a mass media campaign either coordinated with or concurrent with other interventions, including:
- excise tax increases,
- community education programs such as the distribution of self-help cessation information, or
- individual/group counseling for cardiovascular disease risk factor reduction or for smoking cessation.
These findings were based on a systematic review of all available studies, conducted on behalf of the Task Force by a team of specialists in systematic review methods, and in research, practice and policy related to tobacco use.
Hopkins DP, Briss PA, Ricard CJ. Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. [PDF - 6.38MB] Am J Prev Med 2001;20(2S):16–66.
Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Recommendations regarding interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. [PDF - 1.46KB] Am J Prev Med 2001;20(2S):10–5.
Hopkins DP, Husten CG, Fielding JE. Evidence reviews and recommendations on interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a summary of selected guidelines. [PDF - 4.10MB] Am J Prev Med 2001;20(2S):67–87.
Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Tobacco. [PDF - 3.63KB] In : Zaza S, Briss PA, Harris KW, eds. The Guide to Community Preventive Services: What Works to Promote Health? Atlanta (GA): Oxford University Press;2005:3-79.
More Community Guide publications about Tobacco Use
The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC.
The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Increasing tobacco use cessation: mass media campaigns when combined with other interventions. www.thecommunityguide.org/tobacco/cessation/massmediascampaigns.html. Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.
Review completed: October 2009
- Page last reviewed: February 7, 2011
- Page last updated: December 23, 2011
- Content source: The Guide to Community Preventive Services