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The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services

Together, the Community Guide and the Clinical Guide provide evidence-based recommendations across the prevention spectrum.


Promoting Good Nutrition: School-Based Programs Promoting Nutrition and Physical Activity

Included Studies

Agron P, Takada E, Purcell A. California Project LEAN's Food on the Run program: an evaluation of a high school-based student advocacy nutrition and physical activity program. J Amer Diet Assoc 2002;102:S103-5.

Arbeit ML, Johnson CC, Mott DS, Harsha DW, Nicklas TA, et al. The Heart Smart Cardiovascular School Health Promotion: behavioral correlates of risk factor change. Preventive Medicine 1992;21:18-32.

Auld GW, Romaniello C, Heimendinger J, Hambridge C, Hambridge M. Outcomes from a school-based nutrition education program using resource teachers and cross-disciplinary models. J Nutr Ed 1998;30:268-80.

Auld GW, Romaniello C, Heimendinger J, Hambridge C, Hambridge M. Outcomes from a school-based nutrition education program alternating special resource teachers and classroom teachers. J School Health 1999;69:403-08.

Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Cullen KW, et al. Squire's Quest! Dietary outcome evaluation of a multimedia game. Amer J Preventive Medicine 2003;24(1):52-61.

Baxter AP, Milner PC, Hawkins S, Leaf M, Simpson C, et al. The impact of heart health promotion on coronary heart disease lifestyle risk factors in schoolchildren: lessons learnt from a community-based project. Public Health 1997;111:231-7.

Birnbaum AS, Lytle LA, Story M, Perry CL, Murray DM. Are differences in exposure to a multicomponent school-based intervention associated with varying dietary outcomes in adolescents? Health Ed Behavior 2002;29:427-43.

Bush PJ, Zuckerman AE, Theiss PK, Taggart VS, Horowitz C, et al. Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black schoolchildren: two-year results of the "Know Your Body" program. Amer J Epidemiol 1989;129:466-82.

Christensen NK, Lauritzen GC, Pfister RS, Harmon S. Incorporating nutrition education into an economics unit for fifth graders. Top Clin Nutr 2001;16:51-60.

Coale EK, Bedford MR. Fat-controlled menus in a school lunch program. School Food Service Research Review 1984;8:37-41.

Davis SM, Lambert LC, Gomez Y, Skipper B. Southwest Cardiovascular Curriculum Project: study findings for American Indian elementary students. J Health Ed 1995;26:S72-81.

Dollahite J, Hosig KW, White KA, Rodibaugh R, Holmes TM. Impact of a school-based community intervention program on nutrition knowledge and food choices in elementary school children in rural Arkansas Delta. J Nutr Ed 1998;30:289-301.

Donnelly JE, Jacobsen DJ, Whatley JE, Hill JO, Swift LL, et al. Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Obesity Res 1996;4:229-43.

Dunlop WL, Wahlqvuist ML, Rutishauser IHE, Nestel PJ. The effect of a breakfast-oriented nutrition education program on food intake patterns and alertness of schoolchildren. Proc Nutr Soc Aust 1981;6:104. 

Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Feldman HA, Elder JP, Perry CL, et al. The effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health upon psychosocial determinants of diet and physical activity behavior. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:442-54.

Ellison RC, Goldberg RJ, Witschi JC, Capper AL, Puleo EM, et al. Use of fat-modified food products to change dietary fat intake of young people. Am J Public Health 1990;80:1374-6.

French SA, Jeffrey RW, Story M, Breitlow KK, Baxter JS, et al. Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS study. Am J Public Health 2001;112-7.

Friel S, Kelleher C, Campbell P, Nolan G. Evaluation of the Nutrition Education at Primary School (NEAPS) programme. Public Health Nutr 1999;2:549-55.

Fries E, Meyer A, Danish S, Stanton C, Figueiredo M, et al. Cancer prevention in rural youth: Teaching Goals for Health: the pilot. J Cancer Educ 2000;16:99-104.

Gans KM, Levin S, Lasater TM, Sennett L, Maroni A, et al. Heart healthy cook-offs in home economics classes: an evaluation with junior high school students. J School Health 1990;60:99-102.

Gertlinter MJ, Laughlin CVT, Bell E, Akre C, Arjmandi BH. Food waste is reduced when elementary-school children have recess before lunch. J Amer Diet Assoc 1996;96:906-8.

Goldberg SJ, Allen HD, Friedman G, Meredith K, Tymrack M, et al. Use of health education and attempted dietary change to modify atherosclerotic risk factors: a controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:1272-8.

Gortmaker SL, Peterson K, Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Dixit S, et al. Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:409-18.

Gortmaker SL, Cheung LWY, Peterson KE, Chomitz G, Cradle JH, et al. Impact of a school-based interdisciplinary intervention on diet and physical activity among urban primary school children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:975-83.

Hackett AF, Jarvis SN, Matthews JNS. A study of the eating habits of 11- and 12-year-old children before and one year after the start of a healthy eating campaign in Northumberland . J Human Nutr Diet 1990;3:323-32.

Harrell JS, McMurray RG, Gansky SA, Bangdiwala SI, Bradley CB. A public health vs. a risk-based intervention to improve cardiovascular health in elementary school children: the Cardiovascular Health in Children study. Am J Public Health 1999;89:1529-35.

Harrell JS, Gansky SA, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, Frauman AC, et al. School-based interventions improve heart health in children with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Pediatrics 1998;102:371-80.

Harris KJ, Paine-Andrews A, Richter KP, Lewis RK, Johnston JA, et al. Reducing elementary school children's risks for chronic diseases through school lunch modifications, nutrition education, and physical activity interventions. J Nutr Ed 1997;29:196-202.

Heath EM, Coleman KJ. Evaluation of the institutionalization of the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) in a U.S./Mexico Border Community. Health Ed Behavior 2002;29:444-60.

Holcomb JD, Lira J, Kingery PM, Smith DM, Land D, et al. Evaluation of Jump Into Action: A program to reduce the risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in school children on the Texas-Mexico border. J School Health 1998;68:282-8.

Hopper CA, Gruber MB, Munoz KD, Herb RA. Effect of including parents in a school-based exercise and nutrition program for children. Research Quarterly Exercise Sport 1992;63:315-21.  

Hopper CA, Gruber MB, Munoz KD, MacConnie S. School-based cardiovascular exercise and nutrition programs with parent participation. J Health Ed 1996;27:S32-9.

Howard JKH, Bindler RM, Synoground G, Van Gemert F. CA cardiovascular risk reduction program for the classroom. J School Nursing 1996;12:4-11.

Johnson CC, Nicklas TA. Health Ahead--The Heart Smart Family approach to prevention of cardiovascular disease. Am J Medical Sciences 1995;310:S127-32.

Killen JD, Telch MJ, Robinson TN, Maccoby N, Taylor B, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction for tenth graders. JAMA 1988;260(12):1728-33.

Leddon KR. Effect of a heart health nutrition program on elementary school children in Piedmont North Carolina. Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Carolina, Greensboro 1990:1-61.

Liquori T, Koch PD, Contento IR, Castle J. The Cookshop Program: outcome evaluation of a nutrition education program linking lunchroom food experiences with classroom cooking experiences. J Nutr Ed 1998;30:302-13.

Luepker RV, Perry CL, Murray DM, Mullis R. Hypertension prevention through nutrition education in youth: a school-based program involving parents. Health Psychology 1988;7:S233-45.

Lytle L. Lessons from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): Interventions with children. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1998;9:29-33.

Lytle LA, Stone EJ, Nichaman MZ, Perry CL, Montgomery DH, et al. Changes in nutrient intakes of elementary school children following a school-based interventions: results of the CATCH Study. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:465-77.

MacKinnon DP, Goldberg L, Clarke GN, Elliot DL, Cheong JW, et al. Mediating mechanisms in a program to reduce intentions to use anabolic steroids and improve exercise self-efficacy and dietary behavior. Prevention Science 2001;2: 15-28.

Manios Y, Kafatos A. Health and nutrition education in elementary schools: changes in health knowledge, nutrient intakes and physical activity over a six year period. Public Health Nutr 1999;2:445-8.

Moon AM, Mullee MA, Rogers L, Thompson RL, Speller V, et al. Helping school to become health-promoting environments--an evaluation of the Wessex-Healthy Schools award. Health Promotion International 1999;14:111-22.

Morris JL, Neustadter A, Zidenberg-Cherr S. First-grade gardeners more likely to taste vegetables. California Agriculture 2001;55:43-6.

Morris JL, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Garden-enhanced nutrition curriculum improves fourth-grade school children's knowledge of nutriton and preferences for some vegetables. J Amer Diet Assoc 2002;102:91-3.

Morris JL, Briggs M, Zidenberg-Cherr S. Nutrition to grow on: a garden-enhanced nutrition education curriculum for upper-elementary schoolchildren. J Nutr Ed Behavior 2002;34:175-6. 

Nader PR, Stone EJ, Lytle L, Perry CL, Osganian SK, et al. Three-year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity: the CATCH cohort. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:695-704.

Nicklas TA, Dwyer JT, Yang M, Stone EJ, Lytle L, et al. The impact of modifying school meals on dietary intakes of school-aged children. School Food Service Research Review 1996;20(S):20-6.

Nicklas TA, Johnson CC, Myers L, Farris RP, Cunningham A. Outcomes of a high school program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption: Gimme 5--a fresh nutrition concept for students. J School Health 1998;68:248-53.

O'Neill M, O'Donnell D. Smart Snacks Scheme: a healthy breaks initiative in the school environment. International J Health Promotion & Education 2002;40:60-4.

Perry CL, Bishop DB, Taylor G, Murray DM, Mays RW, et al. Changing fruit and vegetable consumption among children: The 5-a Day Power Plus Program in St. Paul, Minnesota. Am J Public Health 1997;88:603-9.

Petchers MK, Hirsch EZ, Bloch BA. A longitudinal study of the impact of a school heart health curriculum. J Community Health 1998;13:85-94.

Piper DL, Moberg DP, King MJ. The Healthy for Life Project: behavioral outcomes. J Primary Prevention 2000;21:47-73.

Ransome K, Rusk J, Field C. A school milk promotion program increases milk consumption and improves the calcium and vitamin D intakes of elementary school students. Revue Canadienne Prat Rech Dietet 1998;59:190-8.

Resnicow K, Cohn L, Reinhardt J, Cross D, Futterman R, et al. A three-year evaluation of the Know Your Body Program in inner-city schoolchildren. Health Ed Qtrly 1992;19:463-80.

Reynolds KD, Franklin FA, Binkley D, Raczynski JM, Harrington KF,  et al. Increasing the fruit and vegetable consumption of fourth-graders: results from the High 5 Project. Preventive Medicine 2000;30:309-19.

Sahota P, Rudolf MCJ, Dixey R, Hill AJ, Barth JH, et al. Randomised controlled trial of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 2001;323: 1-5.

Sahota P, Rudolf MCJ, Dixey R, Hill AJ, Barth JH, et al. Evaluation of implementation and effect of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity.  BMJ 2001;323:1-4.

Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Conway TL, Elder JP, Prochaska JJ, et al. Environmental interventions for eating and physical activity: a randomized controlled trial in middle schools. Am J Prev Med 2003;24:209-17.

Simons-Morton BG, Parcel GS, Baranowski T, Forthofer R, O'Hara NM. Promoting physical activity and a healthful diet among children: results of a school-based intervention study. Am J Public Health 1991;81:986-91.

Simons-Morton BG, Parcel GS, O'Hara NM. Implementing organizational changes to promote healthful diet and physical activity in school. Health Ed Qtrly 1988;15:115-30.

Smith SF, James MA. School lunch as a nutrition education resource for fourth graders. J Nutr Ed 1980;12:46-9.

Stewart KJ, Seemans CM, McFarland LD, Weinhofer JJ. Social learning versus traditional teaching in an elementary school cardiovascular health promotion program. Am J Health Promotion 1997;11:194-7.

Tamir D, Field A, Brunner S, Halfon ST, Reshef A, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in childhood: changes in serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and body mass index after 2 years of intervention in Jerusalem schoolchildren age 7-9 years. Preventive Medicine 1990;19:22-30.

Tell GS, Vellar OD. Noncommunicable disease risk factor intervention in Norwegian adolescents: the Oslo Youth Study. In: BS Hetzel and GS Berenson, ed. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: epidemiology and prevention. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. 1987:203-17.

Thackeray R. The impact of a social marketing campaign on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among middle school adolescents. 2000. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Utah: 1-228.

Turnin MC, Tauber MT, Couvaras O, Jouret B, Bolonella C, et al. Evaluation of microcomputer nutritional teaching games in 1,876 children at school. Diabetes Metab (Paris) 2001;27:459-64.

Vandongen R, Jenner DA, Thompson C, Taggart AC, Spickett EE, et al. A controlled evaluation of a fitness and nutrition intervention program on cardiovascular health in 10- to 12-year-old children. Preventive Medicine 1995;24:9-22.

Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. Amer J Epidemiol 1985;122:772-81.

Walter HJ, Hofman A, Barrett LT, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among children: three year results of a randomized intervention trial. In: B Hetzel and GS Berenson, ed. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: Epidemiology and Prevention. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1987:161-81.

Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughn RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1988;318:1093-100.

Webber LS, Osganian SK, Feldman HA, Wu M, McKenzie TL, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors among children after a 2 1/2-year intervention--the CATCH study. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:432-41.

Wechsler H, Basch CE, Zybert P, Shea S. Promoting the selection of low-fat milk in elementary school cafeterias in an inner-city Latino community: evaluation of an intervention. Am J Public Health 1998;88:427-33.

Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Koepsell TD, Finch AJ, Psaty BM. Randomized intervention to increase children's selection of low-fat foods in school lunches. J Pediatr 1994;125(4):535–40.

Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Finch AJ, Psaty BM. An environmental intervention to reduce dietary fat in school lunches. Pediatrics 1992;91:1107-11.

White AA. Changing adolescents' food-related behavior via nutrition education.  1988. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 1-242.

Willeford C, Splett PL, Reicks M. The Great Grow Along curriculum and student learning. J Nutr Ed 2003;32:278-84.

Zive MM, Pelletier RL, Sallis JF, Elder JP. An environmental intervention to improve a la carte foods at middle schools. J Amer Diet Assoc 2002;102(Suppl):S76-8.