Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to several types of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. The most common type of heart disease in the U.S. is coronary artery disease (CAD), which can lead to heart attacks (CDC).
- CVD is the leading cause of death in the world, responsible for 30% of all deaths globally (WHO), and 1 in 3 (over 800,000) deaths in the U.S. (CDC/MMWR) [PDF - 248 kB] .
- CVD is the leading cause of death for both men (CDC) and women in the U.S. (CDC)
- High blood pressure and high cholesterol are two major risk factors for heart disease. About half of U.S. adults with high blood pressure and nearly 2 out of 3 U.S. adults with high cholesterol don't have their condition yet under control (CDC/Vital Signs).
- In the U.S., annual direct and overall costs resulting from CVD are estimated at $273 billion and $444 billion, respectively (CDC/MMWR). [PDF - 248 kB]
Many CVD risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, excess weight, poor diet, smoking, and diabetes can be prevented or treated through health behavior change and appropriate medication. Some unpreventable risks for CVD are related to heredity, medical history, age, gender, and race. There are also a number of underlying social, economic, and cultural determinants of CVD such as stress, education level, income, and insurance status.
Task Force Recommendations and Findings
This table lists interventions reviewed by the Community Guide, with a summary of the Task Force finding (definitions of findings). Click on an underlined intervention title for a summary of the review.
|Intervention||Task Force Finding|
|Clinical Decision-Support Systems (CDSS)||Recommended
|Interventions Engaging Community Health Workers||Recommended
|Reducing Out-of-Pocket Costs for Cardiovascular Disease Preventive Services for Patients with High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol||Recommended
|Team-Based Care to Improve Blood Pressure Control||Recommended
|Self-Measured Blood Pressure Monitoring Interventions for Improved Blood Pressure Control|
|When Used Alone||Recommended
|When Combined with Additional Support||Recommended
For More Information
Million Hearts™ campaign to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes over five years
The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC. Task Force evidence-based recommendations are not mandates for compliance or spending. Instead, they provide information and options for decision makers and stakeholders to consider when determining which programs, services, and policies best meet the needs, preferences, available resources, and constraints of their constituents.
The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services. Cardiovascular disease prevention and control. www.thecommunityguide.org/cvd/index.html. Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.
- Page last reviewed: November 24, 2015
- Page last updated: November 24, 2015
- Content source: The Guide to Community Preventive Services