Preventing Skin Cancer: Education and Policy Approaches in Child Care Centers
Educational and policy approaches in child care centers aim to decrease sunburns, increase sun-protective knowledge, attitudes, and intentions, and affect behaviors among adults and children. Examples of these interventions include brochures for parents and sessions to develop skin protection plans for child care centers.
Summary of Task Force Recommendations & Findings
- Reduce children’s adverse health effects
- Change children’s behavior related to sun exposure
- Change caregivers’ behavior related to sun exposure
- Change policies and practices in child care centers
- Change children’s or caregivers’ knowledge or attitudes related to sun exposure and sun protection
The finding of insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness was based on (1) limitations in the design and execution of interventions evaluated, (2) small numbers of qualifying reports, (3) variability in interventions evaluated, (4) very short follow-up times, and (5) little substantial or statistically significant improvement in outcomes other than knowledge and attitudes.
About the Interventions:
Interventions reviewed within this category included:
- Curricula that included interactive classroom and take-home activities for children and staff
- Brochures for parents
- Sessions to develop skin protection plans for child care centers
All interventions reviewed focused on some combination of:
- Increasing the use of sunscreen*
- Scheduling activities to avoid peak sun hours
- Increasing availability of shade and encouraging children to play in shady areas
- Encouraging children to wear sun-protective clothing
* Sunscreen use by itself was not considered a recommendation outcome.
Results from the Systematic Review
Thirteen studies qualified for the review.
- Studies were inconsistent in the interventions examined and outcomes measured.
- Results for change in knowledge (9 studies), beliefs (7 studies), and intentions (7 studies) were inconsistent.
These results are based on a systematic review of all available studies led by scientists from CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control with input from a team.
These results are based on a systematic review of all available studies led by scientists from CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control with input from a team of specialists in systematic review methods and experts in research, practice and policy related to preventing skin cancer.
Saraiya M, Glanz K, Briss PA, et al. Interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation: a systematic review. [PDF - 788KB] Am J Prev Med 2004;27(5):422-66.
Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Recommendations to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to ultraviolet radiation. [PDF - 70KB] Am J Prev Med 2004;27(5):467-70.
Task Force on Community Preventive Services. Cancer. [PDF - 402KB] In : Zaza S, Briss PA, Harris KW, eds. The Guide to Community Preventive Services: What Works to Promote Health? Atlanta (GA): Oxford University Press;2005:143-87.
More Community Guide publications about Cancer Prevention and Control
The findings and conclusions on this page are those of the Community Preventive Services Task Force and do not necessarily represent those of CDC.
The content of publications of the Guide to Community Preventive Services is in the public domain. Citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Sample citation: Guide to Community Preventive Services.Preventing skin cancer: education and policy approaches in child care centers. www.thecommunityguide.org/cancer/skin/education-policy/childcarecenters.html. Last updated: MM/DD/YYYY.
Review completed: February 2001
- Page last reviewed: January 27, 2011
- Page last updated: August 24, 2010
- Content source: The Guide to Community Preventive Services